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Watercolor Paper

How Watercolor Paper Is Made

Prior to the 19th century, watercolor paper was handmade by processing wet pulp in a finely woven mesh screen. The process was slow and very expensive. Then in the early 1800s, an industrial paper machine was invented. The paper-making industry started mass producing mold-made watercolor papers. Now high-quality machine-made watercolor paper is readily available, as well as handmade.

Watercolor Paper Characteristics

Watercolor paper is made of cotton and/or linen rag or a blend of cotton and synthetic fibers. A gelatin sizing is added as a protective agent that makes the paper less absorbent. Watercolor paper is available in three textures: rough, hot-pressed and cold-pressed. And, it is available in several thicknesses. High-quality watercolor papers for professional (and serious student) use have the following characteristics:

  • Made of 100% cotton rag
  • Cold-press texture
  • Thickness: 140 lb., 200 lb., or 300 lb. weight

Watercolor Paper Sheet Sizes

The standard size categories for watercolor paper sheets are:

  • Royal (19 x 24 inches)
  • Imperial (22 x 30 inches); also called a “full-sheet”
  • Elephant (29 1/2 x 40 inches); and
  • Double-Elephant (40 x 60 inches)

Watercolor paper can also be purchased in pads, blocks and sketchbooks in a variety of standard sizes and paper qualities. Pads and sketchbooks are usually made of a cotton-blend watercolor paper for student use.

Watercolor Paper Manufacturers

The best, high-quality watercolor paper is produced in France, Italy and Great Britain. They are:

  • Arches made in France
  • Fabriano made in Italy
  • Lana made in France
  • T. H. Saunders made in Great Britain
  • Whatman made in Great Britain

Recommended

If you are a serious student or hobbyist who intends to show and sell your watercolor paintings, use professional-quality watercolor paper that is labeled as “100% cotton”, “archival”, and “cold-press”. The thickness (weight) should be 140 lb. or more. I only use Arches Watercolor Paper natural white full-sheet size for my paintings. To learn my process and see painting demos, I invite you to signup for my Watercolor Mini-Course. And, join my email list to help improve your painting skills. You can view my artwork on Instagram @vanissajames or by visiting my gallery website: Vanissa James Fine Art.